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ЕГЭ 2015. Английский язык. Сборник заданий

Информация 4

The basic principle of politeness is to show respect for the partner. In particular, the speaker tries to avoid em­barrassment, distress or displeasure by showing an awareness of the demands made upon the partner by what he/she says. In this way the possibility of overt conflict is avoided or reduced. The principle can be embodied in a number of maxims:

1. Do not be dogmatic. Remember that the partner may have a different opinion.

This maxim applies to the functions of imparting factual information and expressing attitudes. It implies qualifying simple declarative sentences in the following ways:

the use of I think, I believe, I expect, as introducers or as tags. If they are unstressed, their use does not indicate uncertainty or lack of confidence;

the use of you know, of course, to imply that the partner is not ignorant;

the use of tag questions to invite the partner's agreement (falling intonation) or confirmation (rising intonation).

His mother is Italian, isn't she? (inviting agreement; no uncertainty);

His mother is Italian, is not she? (asking confirmation; uncertain).

Correcting is liable to give offence, since it involves telling the partner that he/she has made a mistake. Offence can be avoided by:

apologising for correcting;I'm sorry, but the lecture isn't on Wednesday, it's on Friday.

querying what has been said, so that the partner can correct the slip;

Blue? Did you say her dress was blue?

presenting the correction as a different opinion;

Fifty-four? I thought eight sevens were fifty-six.

requesting confirmation by the use of a question tag.

Nicaragua? San Jose is in Costa Rica, isn't it?

2. Be reluctant to say what may distress or displease the partner. This applies to such functions as breaking bad news, expressing disagreement, declining offers and invitations, saying that the partner is obliged to do something, prohibiting and withholding permission, expressing displeasure, dislike, dissatisfaction, disappointment and disapproval. The maxim implies such strategies as:

expressing reluctance;

I don't want to complain but... (e.g. this soup is cold).

I don't want to be difficult but... (e.g. this machine doesn't work).

I don't like saying so, but ... (e.g. the music is too loud).

seeking the partner's agreement;

I hope you don't mind me saying so, but ... (e.g. those colours don't mix).

Don't you agree that ... (e.g. that colour is rather too bright).

apologising or expressing regret;

I'm sorry, but ... (e.g. your work is not good enough).

I'm afraid ... (e.g. you haven't passed your exam).

using euphemisms;

e.g. Your work isn't very good... (= your work is bad).

I can't say I like it ... (= I dislike it).

implying something unpleasant rather than stating it openly.

e.g. I'd like to help you (implying but I can't).

Your ideas are interesting (implying but I don't agree with them).

Note the frequent use of falling-rising intonations.

Expressing disagreement is likely to cause offence and to lead to conflict. The risk can be reduced by:

apologising for not agreeing;

e.g. I'm sorry, I but I don't agree.

expressing regret for not agreeing.

e.g. I'm afraid that isn't true.

3. Do not force the partner to act. Allow him/her to appear to act voluntarily. This maxim applies to the functions of suasion, seeking factual information and finding out attitudes. It implies:

adding please when you call for action by the partner;

Where is the toilet, please? (asking for information);

A return ticket to London, please, (requesting something);

Sit down, please (giving instructions, orders).

avoiding simple imperatives when asking the partner to do something for you. Instead,

ask if he/she

is willing to act, e.g. Will you open the window, please?

is able to act, e.g. Can you open this tin for me, please?

wishes to act. e.g. Would you like to help me, please?

use introducers such as

I wonder if ... e.g. I wonder if you could close the window, please?

Do you think ... e.g. Do you think you could open this tin for me, please?

use warnings or advice

e.g. Don't forget to post the letter.

If I were you, I'd keep your eyes on the road.

draw attention to the situation, inviting the partner to recognise that there is a problem that needs to be dealt with.

e.g. It's cold in here, isn't iff (= please close the window).

I can't open this tin. (= please open it for me).

Dinner's ready. (= come and sit down to eat it).

Offers and invitations are very much subject to politeness conventions, but in a complex way, since they attempt to persuade the partner to act in a certain way, but in the interests of the partner rather than of the speaker. Invitations and offers may be strong or weak.

Задание 15

Скажите, какие социокультурные знания и умения вы могли бы продемонстрировать при выполнении сле­дующего устного задания?

Student card

You are planning a two-week holiday with your friend next summer. Your friend and you are discussing what kind of holiday you'd like to have and can really afford. Holiday choices are as follows:

Going to a language school in one of the English- speaking countries;

Going to Sochi and enjoying sunbathing, swimming, meeting new people and socializing with them;

Go camping somewhere in the Far East.

Ask you speech partner about his/her holiday preferences.

Explain your reasons for going to a language school abroad.

Make your choice and decide when and where to go and what travelling preparation you should do beforehand.Задание 16

Случалось ли вам когда-либо проигрывать на заня­тиях по иностранному языку ситуацию, представлен­ную в задании 15?

Можете ли вы проигрывать ситуации подобного рода спонтанно или вам требуется небольшая подготовка?

Вам нужно время, чтобы решить, что вы можете сказать по каждому из предложенных вариантов? Вам необходимо продумать причины вашего выбора?

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