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ЕГЭ 2015. Английский язык. Сборник заданий

people are most satisfied with life

having a cheerful disposition

by close relationships with family and friends

Задание 2

В3. Прочитайте текст и заполните пропуски 1—6 частями предложений, обозначенными буквами A—G. Одна из частей в списке А—G — лишняя. Занесите букву, обозначающую соответствующую часть предложения, в таблицу.

Being celebrity-thin can ruin your health

Celebrities may feel they need to be slimmer than ever, but staying super-thin can seriously damage your health. Nutritionist Juliette Kellow warns that maintain­ing a reed-thin physique can pave the way for future ill­nesses. People who take slimming-down too far 1        

If food intake is low, it's more likely you will be lack­ing in vitamins and minerals. "The body will try to pro­tect itself and direct any nutrients available to vital areas rather than hair and nails," explains Juliette. "So looks start to suffer and you could lose that healthy glow, so highly prized in Hollywood."

Stars who cut out dairy products are laying them­selves open to future bone problems. Calcium and nutri­ent deficiencies can encourage the bone-thinning disease

osteoporosis. Also, the lighter a person is, 2       

            . "That's why it's good to

do weight-bearing and aerobic exercises in the gym," says Juliette.

The body's immune system can suffer the effects of nutrient deficiencies. You have less ability to fight off

colds, flu and bugs, and so 3          .

"Underweight people would need to eat immunity-boost­ing foods such as red peppers, berries and citrus fruits. They would also need to increase their zinc intake to help fight infection," says Juliette.

Lack of calories can mean lack of energy. The body converts calories into energy and without them it simply does not have enough fuel to run on. Just getting through the day can be an ordeal. 4       

If there's not enough food moving round the body, it could lead to a sluggish digestive system, discomfort and bloating. Low levels of iron mean you're not making enough haemoglobin — responsible for red blood cells and transporting oxygen round the body. "People on a diet

are probably 5           ,

such as fortified breakfast cereals, red meat, oily fish, leafy green vegetables, nuts and seeds," says Juliette.

Forty per cent of women under 34 in the UK were shown to be at risk of anaemia due to iron deficiency. Symptoms include tiredness, weakness, dizziness, pale­ness of skin, brittle nails and headaches. But the defi­ciency can play a part 6              such as

cancer, rheumatoid arthritis and other infections.

become more susceptible to infection

you could feel tired all the time

more likely to skip foods rich in iron

could develop some serious deseases

in leading to chronic illnesses

in helping to lead a healthy way of life

the less weight stress there is on the bonesЗадание 3

В3. Прочитайте текст и заполните пропуски 1—6 частями предложений, обозначенными буквами A—G. Одна из частей в списке А—G — лишняя. Занесите букву, обозначающую соответствующую часть предложения, в таблицу.

21st Century Inventions

The 20th century was one of the most remarkable cen­turies because of the technological, medical and interna­tional innovations. Known as the Information Age, it could also be called the Consumer Age or the Communica­tions Age. By the end of 1999, 1      

from the birth and death rates to the way we live and work from day to day. And the reasons for this revolu­tion are as follows: science, engineering and technology.

In 1900, the pace of life was significantly slower. So­ciety was powered by steam and coal, electricity was just starting to arrive in a few homes, and radio, television, computers and other electronic devices were unheard of. People mainly stayed in the communities where they were born and even thinking of going to space was ridiculous. By the end of the century, man had walked on the moon, sheep were being cloned, nuclear energy was powering our lives, the aeroplane had made the world accessible and 2        .Even on a domestic front, technology had changed our lives. In the early part of the century, gas and then elec­tricity offered the opportunity to cook more quickly and efficiently. Technology sped through everyday living, eat­ing became 'on the run'. The introduction of microwave cooking has been at the forefront of this change in life­style. Cooking by microwave energy happened in the 1950's but only became of real interest in the 1970's when people wanted food to be fast, efficient and conve­nient. Food companies took this trend on board and pro­duced complete meals suitable for people who had decided 60 they would prefer to spend their time out of the kitch­en. 3         . The fact that micro­wave cooking is the most economical cooking method on the market is superfluous, but the fact remains, if every­one in the country cooked a jacket potato in a microwave instead of a standard oven, in just one day one entire power station could be closed down. Cooking by micro­wave has been described as the 21st century cooking rev­olution. It perhaps should also be described as the appli­ance of freedom that 4             .

So which inventions from the 20th century will impact on developments in the 21st century? The general consen­sus is that space travel, genetic engineering and wireless communications will see the biggest developments. What railroads were to the 19th century and airplanes were to the 20th century, e-mail is to the 21st. E-mail is the single reason for the widest reaching, most impactful communications revolution in history. It has redefined

the term 'global village' by easing 5            .

Every minute millions of Yahoo! Mails are sent and re­ceived. It has been estimated that eight billion e-mails are exchanged every day and this figure will increase. E-mail is without doubt one of the great inventions of our life­time, as it affects every aspect of human communication from dating to business, from war to peace.

The inventions of the 21st century mainly revolve around things 6       . These things will con­tinue to be developed and improved upon throughout the coming century.

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